What you need to know about pregnancy

The appearance of a child is a miracle that enriches the life of both parents. However, this is not only a great joy, but also a period of adjustment for you, your spouse, and your entire family. You will face the need to change in the usual way of life and learn to share with your loved ones the experiences, joys and responsibilities associated with caring for the newborn. Remember that your child needs the love of all of you, and love means much more than just caring. It also means communication, protection, games and the need to share your lives with this new person. These will be wonderful, full of experiences for you and your family.

When the first signs of pregnancy appear, you should consult your local doctor with an obstetrician-gynecologist. It should be done as soon as possible, firstly, in order to accurately determine the duration of pregnancy, secondly, in a timely manner to identify abnormalities in your health and to conduct the necessary treatment. In the women's consultation you have to undergo a comprehensive medical examination. The local obstetrician-gynecologist will determine weight, height, blood pressure, fetal dimensions, which are of great importance for future births. It is necessary to pass an examination of the therapist, dentist, oculist, surgeon. In addition, the condition of the lungs, kidneys, cardiovascular and endocrine systems will be checked. In the first three months of pregnancy, you need to get rid of the existing chronic foci of infections (carious teeth, inflammation of the tonsils, etc.) It is necessary to visit the antenatal clinic regularly throughout the pregnancy: up to 20 weeks -1 time per month, up to 30 weeks-2 times a month, then weekly.

The formation of the embryo's body is adversely affected by various occupational hazards: vibration, noise, air pollution, hypothermia, overheating. Self-treatment is extremely dangerous. There are more than 400 medicines known to have harmful effects on the fetus. You should learn that self-medication is unacceptable, but if the medicine is prescribed by a doctor, you must strictly follow the intake and dosage regimen. Otherwise, you can harm not only your health, but also, first of all, the future child.

The future mother must be firmly aware that smoking and drinking during pregnancy is unacceptable. The toxic effect of nicotine primarily affects the central and peripheral nervous system. In a smoking woman, frequent miscarriages, premature birth, intrauterine fetal death.

If a woman consumes alcohol, a child with various physical deformities or mental retardation may be born. Among the toxic substances adversely affecting the physical and mental development of the unborn child, alcohol is most dangerous. In the early stages of pregnancy is not recommended: sewing on the foot machine, cycling, swimming, jumping. Health, which depends on you on 5 main foundations: body hygiene, clothing, work and rest regime, rational nutrition, motor activity and psycho-emotional state.

Let's consider these basic elements.


During pregnancy, a woman, performing her work, should alternate with rest. You can not lift weights above 3 kg, do sharp movements. According to labor legislation, pregnant women are exempt from heavy work at night, from overtime, the workplace of a pregnant woman must be protected from the effects of harmful substances (chemicals) and radiation exposure. The actions of these factors a woman should avoid and in everyday life.

Rest and recovery of the body

Of great importance is sleep. Its duration should be at least 8 hours. Before going to sleep, it is advisable to take a walk. Since the first days of pregnancy, you need as much as possible in the fresh air, more often to ventilate the room. Fresh air favorably affects the physical and mental state of women, as well as the development of the fetus, which is particularly sensitive to lack of oxygen. It is useful to have a long stay in the fresh air not less than 3-4 hours a day. Walking should be done several times a day. After returning from a walk, you need to rest in bed for 20-30 minutes.

Healthy women can take 10-15 minutes of air and sunshine bath, the latter by appointment of a doctor, taking into account the state of the nervous and vascular system. Bathing in the sea or the river is allowed only in the normal course of pregnancy. It is not recommended to travel to the sea for pregnant women living in another climatic zone.


Rational nutrition is one of the main conditions of a favorable course of pregnancy and normal fetal development. The permissible increase in body weight during pregnancy is 9-13 kg. Weight gain in the second half of pregnancy should not exceed 300-400 g per week. Of course, it is impossible to completely paint your diet for every day. There are only certain rules that you must adhere to. Food should be taken in small volumes, but often. (5-6 times a day). The need for vegetable proteins is met by potatoes, cabbage, beans, rice, buckwheat and oatmeal. As sources of carbohydrates, substances that reimburse the energy costs of the body, in addition to sugar, bread, vegetables and fruits are used. Approximately 40% of the daily fat intake should be vegetable oils. Beef, pork, lamb fat during pregnancy is not recommended. It should not be especially in the second half of pregnancy to use spices, canned food, smoked products, as well as salty, fatty and sweet food. The pregnant woman should consume food products with 2400-2700 kcal in the first half and 2800-3000 kcal in her diurnal diet in the second half of pregnancy. Low-calorie foods: low-fat milk, fresh vegetables, kefir, fresh fruit, whole milk, lean fish (hake), potatoes, chicken meat, liver, eggs, meat (beef, veal, lamb). Middle-calorie foods: fatty fish, bread, sour cream, jam, low-fat cheese, dried fruit, honey, pork, dried vegetables, rice, pasta, biscuits, fat cheese, sugar.

High-calorie foods (their consumption should be minimized): dry biscuits, mayonnaise, chocolate, milk chocolate, cream cake, almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, boiled sausages, butter, animal fats, vegetable oil. The need for vitamins during pregnancy increases in 2-2.5 times. In summer and autumn it is provided at the expense of vegetables and fruits. In the winter and spring months, the lack of vitamins is compensated by taking multivitamin preparations. The need for such elements as iron (it is necessary for the formation of the fetal circulatory system) and calcium for the bone system is increasing. The need for them is covered by the consumption of certain products (milk, cottage cheese, lactic acid products), or medications prescribed by the doctor containing these elements. The positive effect of folic acid during pregnancy, the reception of which reduces the frequency of development of certain malformations of the fetus, is proved.

Pregnant should not drink a lot of fluids, tk. This can lead to fluid retention in the body. However, when pregnancy is normal, there is no need to drastically reduce the amount of fluid consumed. You can quench your thirst with boiled or mineral water, weak tea, milk, vegetable or fruit juices. It is not recommended to drink carbonated water. At the end of pregnancy, most pregnant women suffer from constipation. In such cases it is recommended to eat raw vegetables and fruits on an empty stomach, to drink curdled milk. Laxatives without the appointment of a doctor should not be used.

By the end of pregnancy, it is necessary to reduce the content of salt in the diet and to limit the use of liquid (up to 1200-1500 ml per day, salt 1.5 tsp)

Personal hygiene

Particular care must be taken to keep the body clean. Daily bath and shower will help you refresh and relax. Remember, taking a bath is allowed until the 8th month of pregnancy, after which it is better to take a shower. Sexual organs should be washed thoroughly and carefully, douching can be done only on the advice of a doctor. You can not bathe in a bath that can lead to premature birth. It is necessary to carefully monitor the purity of the external genital organs In pregnancy, often as a result of impoverishment of the body, pregnant with mineral salts, the integrity of the enamel is violated. Patient teeth must be treated and removed. Treatment and removal of sick teeth during pregnancy is safe. Mammary glands and nipples during pregnancy do not require special care.

Flat and retracted nipples are very rare and are not an obstacle to breastfeeding. Starting from the 7th month of pregnancy, after consultation with a doctor, you can use nipple shapers, which are put in a cup of a bra.


Clothes should be free and do not constrain movements. Tight belts and round elastic bands for stockings, squeezing the superficial veins, impede blood circulation, and this can lead to widening of the veins of the lower extremities. Shoes should be on a wide, stable heel, we must remember that the center of gravity during pregnancy due to the increase in the belly is shifted forward, and on high heels it is more difficult to keep the balance.

Sexual relations

During pregnancy, your attitude towards sex can change, as well as the attitude of your spouse. From a physical point of view, sexual contacts throughout pregnancy can be as frequent as you and your spouse want. An exception should be made if you previously had miscarriages. In this case it is recommended to abstain from sexual acts during the first three months of pregnancy. It is also desirable to stop having sex several weeks before the birth.

Physical exercises

Physical exercises should be regular for 15-20 minutes. Under the influence of exercise, appetite and sleep improve, right breathing is developed, muscles of the abdominal press and perineum are strengthened, nausea and vomiting appear less often. In women engaged in physical education, childbirth is easier.

A special complex of physical exercises for pregnant women will be taught by the instructor in physiotherapy exercises in the women's consultation. Among the special exercises that can help you prepare for childbirth, you should name the poses by Taylor: cross your legs and press them as close to the body as possible. Relax and keep the position until you are comfortable, perform 3 times a day; Sit on the floor, straight back, legs stretched, feet at a distance of 30 cm from each other and turned outward. Pull your arms out and make the slopes alternately to the right foot, to the middle and to the left foot. Do 10 such exercises twice a day.

Relationship in the family

Sometimes in the turmoil of preparing for childbirth, they forget about the future dad. A man, too, must adapt to the emotional turmoil associated with the impending fatherhood. Waiting for the child should bring the spouses together. Involve your spouse to participate from the very beginning. If it is possible, let him accompany you at your first visit to the doctor. Your doctor may need information about his or her health status and other medical information.

A joint visit to the doctor will help your spouse understand some of your problems and changes that you have come across, surround you with additional care and attention. The interaction of the husband and other relatives in the process of pregnancy and childbirth is called partnership. The partnership is aimed at creating a favorable emotional environment in the family and ensuring the safe passage of pregnancy and childbirth; The development of a woman's conscious attitude toward pregnancy and the perception of childbirth as a normal physiological process; Development and strengthening of the sense of motherhood and paternity, responsible parenthood; Training the husband and other relatives to the techniques and skills that help the pregnant woman to maintain peace of mind, to save strength, to strengthen confidence in favorable delivery.

Family preparation for the birth of a child is not only an excellent opportunity for active participation of all family members in an important event in their life. Be aware that the presence of a husband or other relatives during childbirth positively affects their course, shortens the duration of labor, reduces the use of painkillers, and reduces the number of operative labor.

The future child experiences all feelings together with the mother - stress and fear, joy and happiness. This participation in the life of the mother is very important for him, this is the first acquaintance with all human feelings. Mother is the first earthly Universe of the child. Therefore, everything that it passes through tests the fruit. Emotions of the mother are transmitted to him, having either a positive or negative impact on the psyche. It is important to always remember that during the intrauterine period, a community of mother and child is established, which will remain after birth for many years. Therefore, keep this communication in constant communication with the child. Talk with him (albeit not aloud) long before the first movements of the child in the womb. Tell your child what you are doing at the moment, what you are enjoying and why be angry, calm him down after a quarrel and a stressful situation, give him a sweet melody.

So do not spend nine months of pregnancy in vain, do not sink into a blissful idle waiting. The more interesting, more meaningful your life is, the better your baby develops.

Recommendations for breastfeeding

Breastfeeding is one of the most important conditions for the child's harmonious development, its resistance to infections and other adverse effects. Breast milk contains all the nutrients a child needs in the first 6 months of life, in addition, they are quickly and easily digested. Breast milk is clean and does not contain bacteria, so it can not be the cause of a child's illness. A child who, during an infectious disease, remains on breastfeeding, recovers faster than a child who has stopped breastfeeding. Therefore, there is no need to stop breastfeeding. Any woman can breastfeed during the first year of life, it is important only to want and know what to do for this during pregnancy and in the early period of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding allows mothers and children to establish close, loving relationships with each other. The close ties of the child with the mother are a prerequisite for the fact that he will later have good relations with other people.

The child receives all the water necessary for him with milk and does not need additional drinking in the first 4-6 months of life, even in hot climates. Apply the baby to the breast 30-60 minutes after birth, this further contributes to the formation of lactation.

Feed exclusively on breast up to 6 months. Feeding can begin at the age of 6 months. For successful breastfeeding, mother and child must be cohabited and fed on demand, and not by hours. Contact "skin to skin" during the first hour after childbirth helps breastfeeding and the emergence of emotional intimacy. Benefits of cohabiting: the baby cries less than the reasons to give him a bottle; Mothers believe more in breastfeeding and it lasts longer.

The child himself must determine the frequency of application to the chest. Free feeding leads to an increase in the production of milk, the child quickly gaining weight; Fewer problems like breast engorgement; It is easier to accustom the child to breastfeeding.

Before the first breast-feeding, do not give anything to the baby. Pre-lactation feeding is dangerous, because it replaces the colostrum - the earliest food of the baby. It prevents the establishment of sucking. The child's hunger is satisfied, so he wants to suck less. If a child is fed artificial food from a bottle with a pacifier, then it will be more difficult for him to fit into his chest.

A mother can breastfeed a baby, being in different positions: sitting, lying, standing. It is important that the mother is comfortable, and the child could grab more breasts in his mouth, so that he gets enough milk. When applying the baby to the breast, four key points are important:

  • the head and trunk of the child are on the same straight line,
  • the child's face is facing the mother's breast, the nose opposite the nipple,
  • the child's torso is close to the mother's body,
  • If the child is a newborn, the mother supports the entire body of the child from below, not just his shoulders and head

To help your child get along well, you need:

  • touch the baby's lips with the nipple,
  • Wait until the child opens his mouth wide,
  • Quickly push the baby to the chest, pointing its lower lip below the nipple.

When breastfeeding, do not wash your breasts more than once a day and use soap. Breasts do not need to be washed before or after feeding: all you need is a regular bath. Breast washing removes natural oils from the skin and makes the inflammation more likely.

It is very good to rub a little of the expressed milk into the nipple and the sucking nipple after feeding. Almost every woman can produce enough milk for one or even two children. Usually, even when the mother thinks that she has little milk, the child gets everything necessary. Signs that a child can not get enough milk: a bad gain in weight (less than 500 g per month); The allocation of a small amount of concentrated urine (the child urinates less than 6 times a day, the urine is yellow, with a pungent odor).

If the mother has decreased lactation, she needs to increase it. A woman should be allowed to suck her breasts as often as possible in order to stimulate the breast. If the child does not want to suck, lactation will not increase so that she does not. Abundant food does not contribute to increased lactation. However, if the mother does not eat, she needs to eat better to restore strength and energy.

Many mothers feel thirsty when breastfeeding, especially shortly before feeding. However, a plentiful drink does not increase the intake of breast milk. With insufficient lactation, it is sometimes necessary to use phytotherapy, homeopathic medicines, which the doctor will appoint you. In some cases, there is a need to supplement the baby. It is better to do this from a cup, since a child, accustomed to sucking from a bottle, refuses to breast.

We hope you have become convinced of the benefits of breastfeeding for the normal development of the baby and the preservation of the health of the mother.